* Krishna enlightens Arjun with Knowledge from Bhagavad Gita
– On Dharma
– 3 Gunas (Tamas, Rajas, Sattva), Karm Yoga, and Karm Yogi, and Bhakti (Devotion)
Krishna becomes Arjun’s Chariot driver or Sarathi on the first day of the Mahabharat War as Arjun became worried in fighting Bhishma, Drona, and also contemplated on the outcome of the war. Bhishma has already blessed Pandavas to be victorious bringing much dismay to Duryodhan and his brothers, and Shakuni.
Krishna first enlightens Arjun about the Dharma (righteous, in accordance with God and nature) by making the war to be standstill so that he can see both Kuru and Pandavas’ armies. Krishna then informs Arjun about various insults and Adharm meted out to them,
* Duryodhan whose Adharm was of insulting Draupadi and even calling her as the slave (Daasi) in the Yud Sabha
* Dushyasan guilt was trying to remove the hairs of Draupadi,
* Shakuni (mamashri,Gandharaj) was the one responsible to hatch the plan to burn Pandavas’ and Kunti at the Varnavat wax palace by playing his deceit.
* Bhishma has remained quiet when Draupadi was insulted in the assembly hall just to keep his promise.
* Ashwathama (son of Drona) has abused Draupadi by calling her as the one to have the relationship with 5 men, and feels shameful to call her as his sister.
[Varnavat deceit: Duryodhan along with Shakuni and his architect Purochana wanted to kill Pandavas + Kunti at Varnavat but thanks to Vidur’s wisdom and belief, Pandavas escaped unhurt and Purochana himself died in the fire]
After speaking on the Adharm against them, Krishna asks Arjun, does he agree for the need to fight and to have a war ? Arjun replies affirmatively and speaks that the war is justified. Krishna also reminisces Arjun about the righteous things that Bhishma and Drona did for Pandavas’ and Arjun. While Bhishma requested Dhritrashtra to give Pandavas’ kingdom and the respect they deserve (but in vain), Drona – master of archery pledged to make Arjun the best archer in the world (Dhanu Dhari) and he asked his own student Eklavya to cut the thumb of his right-hand as a gift to the teacher (via Guru Dakshina). By doing that, he made the way for Arjun’s supremacy instead of Eklavya. Vikarna (younger brother of Duryodhan) was the only one who supported Draupadi and spoke for her respect in the Yud Sabha, and confronted Duryodhan. Arjun remembers the righteous and Dharm things done by them and suggests to Krishna that he couldn’t kill these people.
Thus Krishna showed the Adharma and Dharma side from Hastinapur, now he switches to Pandavas’ side. Krishna first speaks about how Yudhishtir has allowed Draupadi to be traded on the dice game just to keep his Dharm intact, and also faults Bheem and Arjun for agreeing to Yudhishtir. For the sake of his Dharma, Yudhishtir did an Adharm during that time. Krishna speaks that Abhimanyu, other sons, and nephews of Arjun will die in the war. Duryodhan has lust for the kingdom and therefore he followed Adharm. Arjun feels that both sides have done both Dharm and Adharm when he was asked whether Duryodhan is an enemy. After this, Krishna realizes that Arjun doesn’t know the necessity and meaning of war, and even the true meaning and values of Dharma.
After hearing such strong words from Krishna, Arjun feels completely lost and also feels shivering and even couldn’t hold Gandhiv (Gandiva) in his hands as he was only seeing total destruction, pain from insults, and non-righteous things and doesn’t see the reasons to have the war. Krishna steps in and reiterates which he has earlier said to Draupadi, Kunti, and even Pandavas that the destruction of today will sow the seeds of new development with a brighter future. He asks Arjun on his worry regarding today’s destruction and speaks that the dysfunctional attribute doesn’t suit him, and informs that waging a war is his duty and asks him further to get hold on the weapons.
Arjun reiterates how can he hold weapons against Bhishma, Drona, and others and suggests that even if he gets Paradise that’s also waste fo him and then speaks that people live in anticipation of a good future but after the war, lakhs (1 million=10 lakhs) of women will become widows, and children be orphans, Kuru clan will be destroyed, and trouble bells will start ringing for the entire Aryavart. Krishna responds that Arjun is talking in dumb manner though he looks intelligent and then gives the analogy of leaves on the tree which falls down to lease a new life to the tree and brings new leaves. He regards that true essence of human life is for society and people’s happiness as the entire environment is for God.
Krishna speaks that the destruction is imminent since only after it new traditions will be born. Vedas which were written thousands of years ago have became obsolete and only words are remaining and the new Dharma will be build on the foundations of Old Dharm and now gives Arjun another analogy – After the rain, sky and earth becomes clean, in the same thread, after the war people and the environment will become clean. Krishna wants Arjun to sacrifice all his affections and motivates him further to carry his weapons and prepare for the war. Arjun responds that Krishna’s words are not reaching his heart since his mind has affections for his family and doesn’t consider the well-being of the entire society. He then seeks the right direction for his life from Krishna, and puts his Gandhiv down with respect. He asks Krishna whether he will get rid of his weaknesses (Nirbalta) after finding the right direction. Krishna first informs him about the meaning of life and the true form of environment. He speaks on two contrasting attributes – Ego which is always kept in high esteem by people, and submissive nature can differentiate life and asks Arjun whether he is ready to understand the knowledge that will be imparted to him. Arjun nods his head approving to get further knowledge from Krishna.
Krishna speaks about the existence and living of trees, animals, and species and also what happens after death. Arjun speaks that the structure of man is born from soil, water exists within it, Agni gives temperature and in short five nature things – Earth, Air, Water, Fire, and Sky constitute the body. Krishna reiterates that nobody is above these 5 things and both Dharma and Adharma lies within it. He asks Arjun on his feelings for the soil, relationships, and people, and says that after death the body is destroyed since actually only the behavior, manners, and work represents the identity of a man. Furthermore every person are different from each other in their behavior and manners and the composition of three gunas – Tamas, Rajas, and Sattva decide individual’s behavior and attitude. Tamas is the attribute where people are in darkness, and takes decision without thinking about the good or bad, Sattva is an attribute where all decisions are knowledge-driven after taking into account both the positive and negative actions resulting from them, and choosing the decision with positive outcome. Rajas is an attribute where knowledge is complemented by constraints and bounded by words/promises, such an example is knowledge plus ego.
Arjun speaks the following on how Gunas hold for,
* Duryodhan knows Dharm but doesn’t realize it because of his ego hence he has less Tamas, more Rajas, and no Sattva
* Dushyasan blindly follows his elder brother Duryodhan without any thinking thus he has only Tamas.
Krishna speaks that his teacher Drona has both knowledge and Ego and because of ego he couldn’t serve for the Dharma. Arjun then asks Krishna if the behavior of people is already decided by Gunas then why to punish them for the Adharma they perform.
Krishna speaks about the definition of a man and suggests that to carry out his activities, a man needs strength and it is called Chetna (consciousness). Chetna along with 24 other attributes constitutes the environment and a portion of God is called soul and human is alive when soul resides inside the body. The human body can be destroyed but the soul cannot be.The soul cannot be killed by weapons or burned in fire, or water (weak) or air (dry) can do anything to it. The soul is eternal and the body can be killed and cites the example of new clothes vs. old clothes, and informs that the soul resides in new body when the old body is perished.
After getting knowledge on the soul and its characteristics, Arjun speaks that he is only able to see the environment with his body and couldn’t see his soul. Krishna reminds to him that even a injured, blind, dumb also feel life and the environment hence body is not the identity, and eventually a man who looks inside his own and develops no attachments, only knowledge will learn himself and see his soul. Arjun then asks Krishna about the purpose of soul ? Krishna informs Arjun that portions of God has came in every nook and corner of the environment and they follow the orders of God. God is responsible for both development and destruction and almost 24 parts of the environment also obey those orders. Most souls regard body as the main thing and hence they doesn’t try to change or improve themselves and always follow Adharm. So, Adharm needs to be punished as it is very justified. Krishna then enlightens Arjun that he is not a body but a soul.
Krishna speaks that every soldier has a soul and only their body will be killed and whoever is born will die, and after death will again come by taking a re-birth. He then speaks about the meaning of Dharm and Adharm. Dharm is the one which follows the path to God and the soul follows God’s orders, environment is God, and God is environment and there is no difference. The people with Dharma are nice to other people and cares for other lives and for them if one person is in pain, they feel that the entire environment is in pain, and whoever shows Karuna (mercy) is the one having Dharma.
While Adharma is a sign of selfish and people who wants to hurt others and their direction is very far from God’s one. They are ignorant. Arjun asks Krishna, Shouldn’t we show mercy to their crime caused due to their ignorance ? Krishna responds that in such a case when they(Adharmi’s) cannot look at the knowledge then punishment is the only answer for them and actually it is a mercy to them. Krishna reiterates that because of three factors – Ignorance, Affections, and Adharma, both Karuna and truth is destroyed. He informs Arjun that for next generations to have Dharma then Adharma now needs to be punished and motivates Arjun to leave his weaknesses (Nirbalta) and get ready for the war.
Arjun then speaks that if he takes life away from people then his own Karuna will be finished. Krishna then explains to him that there is a difference between Karm and Karya. Karm in which the environment is hopeful for the karya (work) to be done. And two main classes of Karm are Sata Karm Yogya [thinking on the fruit and expectations] and Nisham Karm Yoga [without fruit and expectations] and we need more births of the latter for preserving the Dharma in the society. People are bounded not by Karm but by the expectations attached to that work.
Krishna explains that because of Arjun’s expectations from the war, if he looses the battle then he will get sadness and feels misery while if he becomes victorious then he will develop more ego and aggression and will kill more people. Krishna suggests that no fear of losing or wish of winning should be in his heart. Thus, Arjun’s sadness or worrisome nature is not from war but for keeping expectations from the war. When asked is this true ? Krishna nods his head and Krishna speaks that one who doesn’t have expectation of happiness or misery from the war will get Karm Yoga and become a Karm Yogi who in turn also understand the soul easily. After this, Arjun speaks on leaving the world and going in an exile (Sanyas). Krishna after hearing it informs him that only because of Sanyas the Mahabharat war is happening today. He informs Arjun that as Good people doesn’t work to involve in wordly matters and things, then Adharm people runs the world. And cites the example of Bhishma and his father Pandu. If Pitamah Bhishma would’t have leave the worldly things then Adharm would have not spread so much in first place. And also, if Pandu haven’t take exile then Yudhistir would have been the king and running his kingdom with prosperity and happiness.
Krishna speaks that Karm Yogi is the one who doesn’t leave the world and go into exile but in fact does worldly things but without getting attached and doesn’t keep expectations even from his own children (like happiness), relatives, and people and only works for the upliftment of the society. When Arjun speaks that happiness for children is essential to parents. Krishna speaks that only by teaching children’s good manners will result in children becoming good individuals in the future like their parents. He argues that there is no work which couldn’t be attached with expectations. God is environment, and does all the things, and the man doesn’t do anything. Krishna wants Arjun to be a Karm Yogi and participate in the war and wants him to get rid of all the affections from his blocked mind. He wants him to follow the God and fulfill his duty and make his soul independent. He says that you have only control on the work, and the result/fruit is in the hands of God so need to run for the fruit and gives the analogy that its better to leave the lust for taste of food instead of deciding to stop eating the food.
Without lust, Karm yogi doesn’t get attached to his work, and only that man will succeed always, and one success or one failure doesn’t hurt him much. If you keep expectations of fruit, then you will develop Kamna leading to Unsatisfaction –> Anger –> Affection and with this the mind drifts away and forgets the knowledge and for such a person the society becomes the enemy. Krishna speaks that Bhishma has Dharma since he has earlier given the blessings for Pandavas and wished them victory though being on the opponent side and himself became an enemy of Duryodhan. Karmayog – devotion to God, leaves the attachments, do the work, and do not worry about fruits.
When Arjun asked about the road to Karm Yogi. Krishna speaks that submission to God you will develop a feeling which is Devotion (Bhakti) and the knowledge of truth vs. wrong can be seen thereafter, and you can see the God (Dharma’s last step). Without seeing the God, then how can you submit to him ? Krishna gives the analogy of the person in the dark room wishes to see the sun without wishing to go outside. He couldn’t see the sun from there, and he has to go out to see it. God is Environment, and without God there is nothing. The one who sees his soul can also see the God and gives the analogy of the salt taste which is the same even for one drop and in the entire sea.
Soon after, Arjun asks Krishna whether he is God ? Krishna answers that he is God, and then refers to Arjun as God and says that he haven’t realized about it. Arjun then asks if he submits to him then it is equivalent to submitting to God. Krishna replies yes. He wants Arjun to leave everything and come under his patronage. Krishna thereafter speaks on his various incarnations, and also enlightens Arjun with Bhakti Yoga and also blesses him with Vishwaroop Darshan thereby teaching Arjun the full spectrum of knowledge, devotion to God, and reaffirming in him the faith for Krishna. Thereafter, Arjun learns his duty and also understands his mind, and prepares for the war with full confidence, and vigor with Krishna supporting him as the able Sarathi or chariot driver.
Promo: Epic War – Mahabharat Promo